Mediated-Transport Systems
102
Facilitated Diffusion
104
Active Transport
104
Osmosis 108
Extracellular Osmolarity and Cell Volume
110
Endocytosis and Exocytosis
112
Endocytosis 112
Exocytosis 114
Epithelial Transport
114
TEST QUESTIONS
118
QUANTITATIVE AND THOUGHT QUESTIONS
118
ANSWERS TO PHYSIOLOGICAL INQUIRIES
119
CHAPTER
5
Control of Cells by Chemical
Messengers 120
Receptors 121
Regulation of Receptors
123
Signal Transduction Pathways
123
Pathways Initiated by Lipid-Soluble Messengers
124
Pathways Initiated by Water-Soluble Messengers
124
Plasma Membrane Receptors and Gene Transcription
133
Cessation of Activity in Signal Transduction Pathways
133
TEST QUESTIONS
136
QUANTITATIVE AND THOUGHT QUESTIONS
136
ANSWERS TO PHYSIOLOGICAL INQUIRIES
136
CHAPTER
6
Neuronal Signaling and the Structure
of the Nervous System
137
SECTION A
Neural Tissue
Structure and Maintenance of Neurons
138
Functional Classes of Neurons
139
Glial Cells
141
Neural Growth and Regeneration
142
SECTION B
Membrane Potentials
Basic Principles of Electricity
144
The Resting Membrane Potential
144
Graded Potentials and Action Potentials
149
Graded Potentials
149
Action Potentials
151
Additional Clinical Examples
158
Multiple Sclerosis
158
Table of Contents
ix
Protein Degradation
63
Protein Secretion
63
SECTION C
Protein-Binding Sites
Binding Site Characteristics
66
Chemical Specifi
city
66
Affi
nity
67
Saturation 67
Competition 68
Regulation of Binding Site Characteristics
69
Allosteric Modulation
69
Covalent Modulation
70
SECTION D
Enzymes and Chemical Energy
Chemical Reactions
72
Determinants of Reaction Rates
72
Reversible and Irreversible Reactions
72
Law of Mass Action
73
Enzymes 73
Cofactors 74
Regulation of Enzyme-Mediated Reactions
75
Substrate Concentration
75
Enzyme Concentration
75
Enzyme Activity
75
Multienzyme Reactions
76
SECTION E
Metabolic Pathways
Cellular Energy Transfer
78
Glycolysis 78
Krebs Cycle
79
Oxidative Phosphorylation
82
Reactive Oxygen Species
84
Carbohydrate, Fat, and Protein Metabolism
84
Carbohydrate Metabolism
85
Fat Metabolism
87
Protein and Amino Acid Metabolism
89
Fuel Metabolism Summary
91
Essential Nutrients
91
Vitamins 92
TEST QUESTIONS
94
QUANTITATIVE AND THOUGHT QUESTIONS
95
CHAPTER
4
Movement of Molecules Across Cell
Membranes 96
Diffusion 97
Magnitude and Direction of Diffusion
97
Diffusion Rate Versus Distance
99
Diffusion Through Membranes
99
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